Wheat flour and baking depending on the brightness or the mass fraction of ash, the mass fraction of wet gluten, and grind
size is divided into classes: Extra, top, first, second, wholemeal.
The most refined, ie cleared views, considered the flour. It is made only from the inner part
of the grain, so it is characterized by a low percentage of gluten, high content of starch and white with a light cream
shade color. Flour has good baking properties: products based on it differ excellent volume and fine-developed porosity.
It is this product is used for high-grade pastry. From this flour turns a great puff, shortcrust and yeast dough and
pastry filling and sauces.
The flour of the first grade, which is the most common, includes in its composition a minor amount of grain shells. Soft
to the touch and with a slight yellowish tint, it contains a lot of gluten, making the dough obtained from it flexible and
ready-made products - a good volume and forms a pleasant aroma and taste. This type of flour is ideal for non-rich baking
(cakes, pancakes, national kinds of noodles) and baking various bread products.
Flour second class is much darker than the first-class, can be gray or brown. The latter has better baking properties -
baking on the basis of its lush, with a porous crumb. It is good for non-rich pastry and table varieties of white bread.
The main difference semolina produced from specific varieties of wheat, - the larger size of the individual particles. It
is characteristic of light cream color and a high percentage of gluten. Great for oily dough.
Wholemeal flour untreated, it is almost out of the very fabric that wheat grain. It is rarely used in cooking and mostly
goes to the table varieties of bread baking.
Extra Grade is characterized by the lowest mass fraction of mineral impurities and ash. This flour for bakery and
confectionery high quality baking.
More modest classification is rye flour: she is seeded, peeled and wallpaper. The three varieties are used for baking rye
Other types of flour are produced in limited quantities for the manufacture of a special national products. For example,
oatmeal making oat biscuits, rice is good for baby food, and buckwheat - for dietary dishes.
In addition to bread and confectionery products made of flour also produce pasta and animal feed. It is added to the
sauces used for breading cutlets or fish.
Quality indicators for high-quality flour
The flour must according to ДСТУ 46.004-99.
- Humidity - a basis of 15%;
- Ash content - max. 0,55%;
- White, conventional RZ-BPL device units - 54;
- The amount of grinding - the basis of 5%;
- Gluten crude - the basis of 24%;
- The number of fall - 160 basis;
Quality indicators for first-quality flour
The flour must according to ДСТУ 46.004-99.
- Humidity - a basis of 15%;
- Ash content - max. 0,75%;
- White, conventional RZ-BPL device units - 36;
- The amount of grinding - the basis of 2%;
- Gluten crude - the basis of 25%;
- The number of fall - 160 basis;
product obtained after the extraction of vegetable oil presses of various designs from the trained oilseeds (sunflower, colza, camelina, flax, etc.). Concentrated feed for farm animals with a high content of protein (15-40%); one of the components of animal feed.
Hemp seed oilcake - a valuable food for horses, pigs and cattle (daily rate up to 2.5 kg), the best lure for the fish (in recent years for this purpose is commonly used sunflower meal). The chemical composition of sunflower oilcake: 11% water, 41% protein, 7% fat, 5.5% fiber, nitrogen-free extractives (mainly starch and sugar) 26%, ash 6.5%. The hemp is much more fiber in corn - to the detriment of carbohydrates proteins.
Cedar oil cake - a valuable raw material in the confectionery and bakery industry, in the food industry as a whole.
Soybean oil cake - The product resulting from pressing soybeans.
Quality indicators for sunflower oil cake
- Crude protein - 32%;
- Crude fiber - 20%;
- Pest infestation - not allowed;
- Nitrate - 450 mg / kg;
- Nitrite - 10 mg / kg.
concentrated feed; byproduct of oil extraction production. It turns out after the extraction of oil from oil seed plant organic solvents in stills and evaporators. Depending on the raw materials are distinguished sunflower (or sunflower), soy, rapeseed, mustard, hlopchatnikovy, castor, hemp and other meal -. A valuable high-protein feed product.
On the content of crude protein meal two types can be distinguished: High protein and low protein. There are two approaches to the definition of indicators such as crude protein, fiber, fat. 100 kg of sunflower meal about 100 feed units and up to 41 kg of digestible protein (calculated as dry substance); 100 kg of hemp - 82 feed units and 24.8 kg of digestible protein. Meal contains vitamins E and group B, rich in phosphorous, but poor in calcium and sodium. All presscakes should be used in the composition of animal feed. Linseed, soybean and sunflower meal especially include feed for farm animals and birds of all kinds; hemp - for dairy cows, fattening cattle, adult sheep and fish pond; coriander and castor beans - in a limited number (because of the content of ricin), mainly for fattening cattle; cotton - in small quantities (because of the content of gossypol) for dairy cows and fattening cattle and pigs.
For soybean oil cake using the two most common method of processing soybeans: chemical (extraction) and mechanical (molding).
Currently, the technology of double-pressing the oil seed is experiencing a "second birth", as compared with extraction preserves the natural properties of the product, different environmental cleanliness and safety, as well as lower power consumption. In Sweden and some other countries of the EU oil extracted in the solvent extraction process, is no longer used for the purification and production of salad oil or margarine for the implementation of the domestic market and exported to other countries with less stringent regulations.
Soybean oil cake and oil on plants is mainly obtained by extraction, pre-pressure circuit when the preliminary presses produce removal of oil prior to extraction. This produces soybean oil cake and oil. The complexity of the process of pressing is the need to maintain soft modes of training material for pressing, or increased oil content meal, oil color is deteriorating.
The resulting cake after press undergoes grinding for crushers further directed to flattening for receiving lobe or in the form of grit fed to extraction, which is carried out by means of special solvents (alcohol, etc.), Wherein from fatty lobe extracted oil residue and the obtained soybean meal. Then spend a solvent distillation of the meal at the toasters-type evaporators channogo.
Efficient stripping of solvent after extraction meal - a complex process. The technology of the tested produce meal for feed purposes can be divided into several stages: removing the solvent from the meal with bringing it in the meal no more than 0.08 - 0.1%; inactivation of trypsin inhibitor and urease activity decline to less than 0.2 pH units. It is also possible further processing tosted soybean meal by grinding it and education tosted soy flour.
Quality indicators for soybean oil cake
- Acid value of oil seeds (core), mg of KOH - 2
- Humidity - 13%
- The content of impurities - 3%
- Oil content - 20%
- Protein content - 41%
- Fiber content - 5%
- Ash content - 5%
- Solubility index of the NSI - 90
- Molds are not allowed
Sunflower oil is a herbal product obtained from sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil has a specific pleasant smell and taste. Depending on the degree of purification all sold oil is separated into refined and unrefined (treated). Crude oil is subjected to only filter for removal of mechanical impurities, all biologically valuable components are preserved. This is the most useful form of sunflower oil with a characteristic pungent odor, and a dark, rich color. Crude oil has a low shelf life that should be considered when purchasing this product: oil, light a long time standing on the window, you may receive the deposit and rancid taste. Keep unrefined oil should be in glass containers in a dark, cool place, ie, in the refrigerator. Refined (refined) oil is subjected to hydration and neutralization of deodorization, bleaching and freezing out. As a result of the oil residues are eliminated heavy metals, pesticides, and other harmful contaminants as well as free fatty acids, which are the cause of smoke when frying in a pan. However, along with unnecessary impurities are removed and valuable biological components: phosphatides, tocopherols, natural vitamins. During deodorization of oil eliminates all the available flavors - it extends the shelf life of the product. Increasingly used freezing procedure - removal of natural waxes, which are covered sunflower seeds. These waxes give the sunflower oil turbidity, particularly when it is sold in cold rooms, on the street, which spoils the appearance of the produce. As a result, the refined oil is obtained impersonal - transparent, odorless, tasteless. Instead, it is stored for a long time, and when frying in a pan does not foam and "shoots".
Refined sunflower oil is ideal for cooking stews and fried, used in the preparation of sauces, mayonnaises, suitable for baking, because it does not give a bitter taste and pungent smell. But fresh salads better to fill the "real", unrefined oil, completely retains all the valuable biological substances and natural vitamins. In addition to benefits, unrefined oil gives many salads original bright taste.
Quality indicators for sunflower oil
- Acid number - 1 mg / g;
- At the time of production - 3 mmol / kg;
- At the end of storage - 10 mmol / kg;
- Phosphorus substance - 0,1%
- Low-fat impurities -0,01%;
- Moisture and volatile substances - 0,1% .
- Transparency - 25 Fem;
- Vitamin E - 80%;
- Vitamin A - 15%
are divided into three types.
Full-that is, fully meet the needs of animals or birds in nutrients, minerals and biologically active substances and designed to feed as the sole ration. It can be fed, for example, chickens, ducks, geese, pigs, rabbits. Marked with letter indices such feed PC.
Concentrates intended for animal feeding, in addition to school and roughage. Such feeding is used at a content mainly cattle of all ages and varying productivity, and when the content of the pigs. These feeds are for marking QC index.
Balancing feed supplements (protein-vitamin, protein-vitamin-mineral, fodder yeast, malt, feed, premixes). Fodder produced as milled to the required particle size uniform deposits, in the form of pellets obtained by pressing and extrusion through the die certain shapes and sizes of loose feed, as well as in the form of grits, obtained by grinding the granules to a desired particle size.
Combined feed production is carried out on special feed lines. They consist of a crusher, where the pulverization feed ingredients and mixer where mixing of the ingredients occurs. Faucets come in different types: belt, screw, vane. The most advanced of these is the single-shaft paddle.
Quality indicators for animal feed
- Humidity - the basis of 14,5%;
- Metallomagnetic impurities - a basis of 30 mg / kg;
- Harmful impurity - 0,25%;
- The content of whole seeds - 0,7%;
- Sand content - 0,7%;
- Feed units - 105 units / 100 kg;
- Digested protein - 160 g / 1 feed. units;
- Crude fiber - 10%.